|Finn Sivert Nielsen||Anthropologist|
Climate-Adapted Villages (CAV) - Ethiopia
The Development Fund / Utviklingsfondet
Translated by Finn Sivert Nielsen
Click here to see the published version of this document with pictures.
Climate Adapted Villages (CAV) is the Development Fund’s community-based approach to climate adaptation. Since 2012, DF has piloted the CAV model in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Nepal, Ethiopia and Malawi.
The ultimate goal of CAV is to increase the adaptive capacity of farmers and indigenous communities by strengthening knowledge of climate change in the communities and enchancing their capacity for planning and local governance.
The Climate Adapted Village model utilises participatory approaches to empower communities on climate-related issues and thereby increase awareness and promote attitude changes in the communities themselves. In most cases, the micro-watershed is used as the unit of planning, and major emphasis is given to collective management of common resources such as forests, water, energy, soil, and crop and livestock diversity.
The CAV model is based in three main steps: To Know, To Do and To Sustain.
1. TO KNOW: Participatory Vulnerability Assessment (PVA)
The first step of CAV is to increase awareness and knowledge among farming and indigenous communities of current and potential future local impacts of climate change. The knowledge is acquired through participatory learning and based on both local observations and scientific knowledge. By the end of the PVA, communities will be able to identify the main climate threats to their natural resource base and livelihoods and viable ways to mitigate and adapt to such threats.
2. TO DO: Collective planning and action (Adaptation Plan)
The project makes use of a participatory planning method based on the information gained from the vulnerability assessment. The community is guided on how priorities may be set, on the basis of the resources that are available to the community. DF provides funds for the community to manage and use in the implementation of their own adaptation plan. Emphasis is put on collective action and local ownership and accountability. Since the unit of planning, in most cases the micro-watershed, is larger than the village, the territory and common resources cover more than one community. This means that the steering committee of the adaptation plan should have representatives from different communities as well as gender balance.
3. TO SUSTAIN: Governing the plan, monitoring and scaling up
The third component of CAV allows communities to see beyond their local actions and the limited life cycle of the project.
Funding is given directly to the community in order to allow participants to implement the adaptation plan within a time frame that is suitable for the realization of the activities that the plan presupposes. The funding plays a key role in building up the community's capacity to adapt, but it is not in itself enough. If collective adaptation plans and actions are to be sustained, community mobilization and advocacy directed at local decision makers are also required. Only thus can we be assured that investments and support for local innovations will continue to flow to the community.
The CAV approach will in time help local governments acquire political and economic support for community-based adaptation and mitigation initiatives within their territories.
CAV in Ethiopia was launched in 2012. The process began by training partners in the use of participatory Climate Vulnerability Assessment tools. CAV training was carried out in Addis Ababa in 2012, facilitated by DF staff from Oslo and the DF's Ethiopian office.
CAV in Ethiopia forms part of a project known as “Integrated steps for climate change adaptation,” which is managed by our local partner, Ethio-Wetlands & Natural Resources Association (EWNRA). The project has been implemented in Yobi Dola, Haro, and Goljo kebeles (rural villages) in Hurumu District (Hurumu Woreda), located in Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
Food insecurity, low income, deforestation, rainfall fluctuation and unreliability, and early drying out of springs are among the problems in Hurumu District. So far, CAV has created awareness among communities in three gotts (villages) of the impact of climate change on local weather conditions and livelihoods. Three different villages participated in the climate vulnerability assessments and the design of local climate adaptation plans. The climate adaptation plan combines good practices for soil, water and forest management, with income opportunities for local villagers.
These activities are not different from those of other development projects, but the CAV model gives responsibility for the governance and sustainability of funds to the community. A women's savings and credit association manages CAV revolving funds, and also administers adaptation funds through the governance rules of their adaptation committee. A climate adaptation plan is matched with seed money. Villagers have a stronger voice and responsibility for drawing in additional resources from governmental and other donors.
Ethio-Wetland & Natural Resources Association (EWNRA) is the Development Fund's partner in our work with adapting Ethiopian villages to climate change. Three villages in Southwestern Ethiopia have developed their own CAV initiatives since 2012.
Three villages in the Hurum district, close to the border with South Sudan, have so far carried out vulnerability analyses and started the implementation of a large number of projects.
Zelalem Adugna is head of EWNRA's district office in the town of Metu. From this base he and his small staff organize teaching and information work among the farmers.
As in the rest of Ethiopia, most of the inhabitants here in the Southwest make their living from small-scale agriculture, and the effects of climate change become hard realities when crops fail and topsoil is washed away.
- These are poor farmers, so it's important to take steps to improve the living standard of common people in general. If the farmers have food and income they won't be forced to fell the forests, burn the fields and pollute the water.
We have many young people who are unemployed and want work, and the women who took part in the vulnerability analysis hope for economic freedom and a stronger voice in society.
We have provided training in three villages - Yobi Dola, Haro and Oljo - each of which consists of several small hamlets: gotts. The villages own the projects themselves and decide which measures should be adopted. When we did the vulnerability analysis, erosion and deforestation were precisely the issues that the villagers pointed out. But they also brought up irrigation systems, access to clean drinking water and opportunities to cultivate a wider variety of fruits and vegetables, Adugna tells us.
The CAV work is organized in cooperatives with a board consisting of representatives of committees for water supply (Wash Committees), soil, health, education, youth, the elderly, and women. The committee boards are supposed to have an equal number of male and female members - a goal that has not quite been realized, but there are branches of the cooperatives that are administered completely by women, and the tendency is that the women push the boundaries and work their way into male-dominated domains. The Development Fund's demand for equal female participation in our projects has led to great improvements in the villages that have embraced the CAV work.
The cooperatives manage the monetary resources that are earmarked for training, water pumps, building irrigation systems, and distribution of domestic animals, seeds and plants. They also conduct training in new agricultural methods and climate-smart initiatives. To gain access to these benefits, individual families must join a cooperative and pay an admission fee of 20 birr (1 USD). Members commit themselves to participate in communal work and practice climate-related measures actively on their own land.
- If we were to point out any problems in this work, it would have to be that the participation of village families is uneven. Some are unwilling to face the problems of climate change, and only want aid for themselves and their families. But as time goes by and people see the results we achieve, and that cooperative members actually achieve higher living standards, support for our work increases. It's a question of patience and long-term communication, I think. Other challenges have to do with funding and capacity; we wish we could reach out to a greater number of people with even more. Today we work with 407 households, or about 1650 people. With a larger budget we could scale up to more villages.
|PICTURE: Zelalem with book. ZELALEM ADUGNA (left) on a field visit to Goljo, giving good advice to Wash Committee accountant ISHETU TAYE.|
Saving and microcredit restricted to women only is a good tool for local climate adaptation. In the savings collective Bikitu, the women can for the first time ever play an active part in the organization of village life, share opinions and manage their own money.
YOBI DOLA: The Bikitu Cooperative
A long line of women approaches the cooperative meeting house. They carry well-used passbooks and worn banknotes. Laughter is never far off and by the time they reach the courtyard the air is full of lively chatter. Outside, under the half-roof, the head of the board, Almaz Getahun (45) and her secretary Fantaze Legasse (25) have account books and name lists ready. One by one the women come forward, turn in their banknotes and have the deposit registered in the book.
- We've never had our own money before, the men always made all the decisions around the house, explains Fantaze. Now we have the chance to manage the household finances, and that's the way it should be. As women we have no privileges or advantages, but we want to improve our living conditions, so we've got to take the problems in hand. When we control the money, the family has food on the table.
Ever since Fantaze and Almaz were trained in accountancy and banking by the Development Fund and EWNRA, the women in the savings committe have gotten together twice a month to deposit their two birr (10 US cents). The savings cooperative is run entirely by women. It strengthens their commitment to saving and personal finances, while also functioning as a forum for discussion and exchange of opinions.
|PICTURE: ALMAZ GETAHUN (45), chairwoman of the board for women's savings. FANTAZE LEGASSE (25), secretary.|
"When we control the money, the family has food on the table." Fantaze Legasse (25)
|PICTURE: TENAGNE GETAHUN (50)|
Tenagne Getahun (50), group coordinator and member of the savings collective, puts into words what most of the women think:
- Before we started this savings cooperative we weren't even allowed to go outdoors, but now that we're liberated we can meet and talk together. Our men understand that this is right when they see that we have good food on the table and money in the bank.
The effort to adapt Ethiopian villages to a changing climate is organized through cooperatives that bring together members from various committees in the local community.
|PICTURE: GIRMA W. MARIAM (40), chairwoman of the village committee.|
- During the last few years we've done a lot of talking about the weather and our problems with growing enough food, but we had no idea what to do about it. After all, the changes come slowly and it takes time to see what causes the problems. So it was a turning point when we learned about the effects of climate change and what we can do with the tools we have at hand.
One of the things we've done is to distribute 100 head of cattle. That's been very important for the affected families. We used to have problems with waterborn diseases like diarrhea and with poor general health, but now we've installed water pumps and people are much healthier.
|PICTURE: AWEKE DEMISE (42), organizer and board member of the cooperative.|
- There's a lot we want to do, and through CAV we've learned to face the most important challenges first. We've agreed to help the poorest of all first of all, and that's why we've given cattle, plants, seeds, and fruit trees to some families. We're already well under way with the tree planting, and as soon as we succeed in one area, we move on to the next, and so we expand our activities - little by little. Our fields need irrigation and we need water for drinking, and this is also coming along, we can already see that there's less erosion on the hillsides. What we would really like right now are some more avocado plants and other seeds, because we're running short on these, says Aweke Demise (42), member of the board of the Bikutu cooperative.
"We've learned to face the most important challenges first." Aweke Demise (42)
Tafese Tegein (71) is a member of the council of elders and has long experience with projects promoted by the Ethiopian government.
- Often we were simply mistreated by the people who came to start projects of various kinds. Now, things are different. Since we get to participate actively, we learn new techniques, and now we know much more about the how the climate is changing and what we can do to protect ourselves, he says.
When I was young, the rainy season used to come when it was supposed to. Now it rains a little now and a little then, it's difficult to plan when to plow, sow and harvest. The population of this country is rising and people need more land. This puts pressure on our natural resources. We've got to learn to be wiser, to save water and improve our irrigation works so we can grow other things, not just maize and teff. I'm very happy with the terraces we built with multipurpose grass. They stop the soil from draining away, and the grass is good for animal fodder - and for house building too. The future looks brighter now, concludes Tafese.
|PICTURE: TAMIRU ADEME (27), the government's man (the thin man in the gray sweater).|
Tamiru Ademe (27) is the representative of the government in the work with the cooperatives in Hurumu Woreda. As an agent of the Office for Cooperative Development, he collaborates with the boards of the various cooperatives and coordinates closely with EWNRA and the Development Fund.
- At our office we're completely dependent on cooperation with good Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's). The government sees this as a fine opportunity for promoting development. We get the cooperatives going and the NGO's facilitate their activities by contributing knowledge and funds.
We started the climate adaptation process from zero a few years ago and since then things have gone very well. We're particularly enthusiastic about the savings and microcredit operation, since it's often hard to convince the women that it makes sense to save, and it can be difficult to organize the savings securely. While private lenders operate with very high interest rates, conditions at the cooperatives are much better.
We make sure that the cooperatives get official approval and that the savings cooperatives have the necessary permits to engage in banking activities.
We can also contribute with sanctions against farmers who cultivate for example bananas or eucalyptus, which consume too much water in wetlands or from water sources, or who burn down forests and fell trees illegally.
We would be very happy if the projects could be scaled up and more families could improve their living standards. As stakeholders we will contribute!
|PICTURE: ALEBACCHEW FEYISA (24), the man from the government office.|
To ensure that our work is upscaled and continued after the Development Fund terminates its activities, we give education and training in CAV methods to a large number of government employees. Alebaccew Feyisa (24) has received such training and now works as a CAV agent in the villages.
- For three years we've worked with support from the Development Fund and EWNRA. Before starting, we discussed the problems with the committees: longer dry periods, deforestation, erosion, the potential for irrigation, and people's living conditions in general.
After doing the vulnerability analysis we started activities to protect the soil, among other things by planting what we call "multipurpose grass". We distributed beehives and water pumps, and started a microcredit system. Many families received a new breed of cow that is resistant to disease, has better drought tolerance, and gives more milk than the species most people use. Here in Yobi Dola we're involved with three gotts (hamlets) with 125 households, and others are eager to join. We've learned a lot, and as soon as we're able, we'll expand our activities and take along the experience we've gained here to new locations.
|PICTURE: Store owner KEDIJA BAKTRO (32). Kedija's daughter, RAMUTU FARUK (17).|
In a room in the family's house, Kedija Bakiro (32) has set up a small store. On the counter stand a pair of scales and from the shelves behind hang candies, ball-point pens, soap, paraffin and pasta.
- I've completely changed my ideas about saving, says Kedija Bakiro (32). As a member of the savings cooperative I've gotten a microcredit loan of 2000 birr (USD 96). I used the money to start this store, and now I have my own economy and don't need to work on other people's land or as a maid in other people's houses. We have a son in 8th grade and a daughter in 10th grade, and it's thanks to the store that they can continue in school. So the saving and microcredit helps the whole family.
|PICTURE: Grevillea robusta, also called Silk Oak, is a fast-growing tree with evergreen leaves. It can be grown together with coffee plants and maize as a replacement for lost forests. The leaves make good fertilizer and the bees are particularly happy for its flowers.|
|PICTURE: ABEBE DEGEFI (37) has planted 3000 Grevillea robusta on his hillsides. He received 600 seedlings from ENWRA. His neighbor HAILU DABA (60) has come over to learn about the tree planting.|
|PICTURE: This entire hillside in Haro was nothing but earth and rock before Abede planted trees.|
- We used to grow teff here (a local food grain that is used to make the soft griddlecake injera that is eaten with all meals in Ethiopia and Eritrea), but it didn't grow very well, since the soil washed away and the grain got no nourishment. In the end there was nothing here at all, not even grass!
We got information and training through ENWRA and what we heard about climate change scared us. I received the first 600 seedlings as a gift and started planting two years ago. It will be another eight years before I can take out any timber and make money on this, but in the meantime I'm planting cardemom and with time I'll add coffee plants that thrive in the shade of the trees. And since the bees love the flowers on these trees I hope to get some beehives too.
Abebe shares his experience with his neighbors and most of them are eager to learn more about this form of soil protection. One of them is Hailu Daba (60) who sees that Abebe has made some smart choices.
- I have old eucalyptus trees on my land and it's high time to think about replanting. When I was a boy, this whole hillside was covered with forest, but then we chopped down the trees little by little, and finally there wasn't a blade of grass left, just red earth, says Hailu Daba.
Hailu is concerned about the changes in the natural environment around him.
- Our cattle never used to have diseases, but now it's a big problem. We get training and knowledge about the changes in the climate, and we use this knowledge to think about the problems and look for solutions.
|PICTURE: In the neighboring village, Yobi Dola, the farmer ISHETU TAYE (24) is also planting Grevillea robusta. His plan is not to regenerate the forest, but to plant trees on his teff field to make shade for the grain. Ishetu has also received multipurpose grass and uses it to hold on to the soil in his maize field.|
|PICTURE: Gemechu Nigatu (47) is kebele (village) chairman; Eliyas Mitiku (24) is kebele manager.|
In the Goljo municipality, the inhabitants of five villages have formed the Dederara cooperative, which organizes the CAV work. The climate challenges are the same here as in the neighboring municipalities, but here the farmers focus particularly on drinking water and irrigation.
- We are five gotts (hamlets) that have joined together in a cooperative to do CAV work. In the vulnerability analysis we concluded that we have to preserve the soil, the woods and the water. We have many problems with erosion, deforestation and access to water. And it seems like it's just going to get worse, says chairman Gemechu Nigatu (47).
Gemechu continues to talk about the simple irrigation system they have built - simple, yes, but a tough challenge in the rugged terrain.
- But now we're glad we did it. There are so many who benefit from the irrigation works and quite a few of us now have large harvests of vegetables and fruit, he says.
Gemechu knows very well that the Development Fund's presence in the area is of limited duration, and that its work will be taken over by the cooperatives and local authorities.
- The CAV project will be phased out, we've known that from the start, but we have so many projects going... the savings, the knowledge and commitment, they won't disappear. But I'll be glad if more of the villages and hamlets around here get to join the CAV work. We'll all profit from that.
Eliyas Mitiku (24) is a village chairman and tells about the CAV work that started in 2013 with a vulnerability analysis. At that time the members of the cooperative concluded that climate-related measures must be combined with an effort to improve living conditions for the most exposed families.
- We started a microsavings cooperative and soon had nearly two hundred members who contribute a small amount every other week. Today, they have 192,814 birr (USD 9,214) in the bank. In addition to our savings we have received 375,000 birr (USD 17,920) in support from EWNRA. So far we've distributed twenty cows to families that needed support and 36 unemployed have gotten beehives. We also set up two water pumps and built an irrigation system.
To start with it was hard to get people to save, but we were trained well and spread our training to others. When our members save, they get access to microcredit, and this means new opportunities. Several people have bought cattle, which give the children milk and the family extra income. Many have built better houses, and with the irrigation works in place we can grow several different kinds of vegetables and fruit. This gives people a more varied diet. We could have done much more, though, if we had more seeds and more volunteers to give training.
As in other villages and hamlets where CAV work is under way, the government sends agents trained by the Development Fund. Here in Goljo, Geremewu Firisa represents the authorities.
- ENWRA's representatives can always be contacted for discussions and advice, so we work well together. Many farmers have planted multipurpose grass which has improved the quality of our soil greatly. And then there are a number of families who have planted pineapple. This is unusual in this area, but the first attempts are under way and the prospects look good. We're trying avocado too. The farmers in the area get more and more interested when they see the good results, says Cooperative Development agent Geremewu Firisa (49).
"The CAV project will be phased out, but we have so many projects going, and the knowledge and commitment will not disappear." Gemechu Nigatu (47)
|PICTURE: DEGITU GEMCHU (70).|
- I'm very happy about everything that's happened. My life has become much better after I joined the cooperative. I got a cow and it's having a calf soon, and I also received microcredit and bought another cow. I used some of the money I lent to buy seeds, and now our family grows so much fruit and so many vegetables that we eat well and can even sell our surplus on the market.
Since the the savings and loan cooperative started up in Goljo Kebele, 104 members have received loans and 74 of these have payed back the entire amount. 30 debtors are behind on their payments, but several of them tell us that the sheep they have bought for their microloans now are expecting lambs, and then they can pay back their loans.
During the second round of lending, 88 families from the municipality had their loans accepted.
|PICTURE: JEMANESH OBSA (28)|
- For us women the savings and credit cooperative exceedes all our expectations, says Jemanesh Obsa (28).
According to tradition we should stay indoors and cook and do housework, and it's very unusual that women have economic freedom. Now we get to go out and talk and discuss with other women and with the men. Our knowledge about the climate situation and about women's rights is increasing, and that's very good!
|PICTURE: LUEDAJA DEBELA (52).|
- When ENWRA taught us about CAV work it really opened up my eyes. Before, I didn't know what at 100-birr banknote looked like. Now I have several thousand in the bank!
When I got microcredit I bought sheep and seeds. The sheep had lambs, which I sold, and finally I had enough to buy a cow. Now I sell lambs and grow vegetables. This has changed my life, says Luedaje, a widow and the main breadwinner in the family.
|PICTURE: Dederara Youth Cooperative. TILAHUN GEMECHU (20) and GETACHO FIRISA (25).|
The young people have started their own cooperative. Two groups with 12 and 14 members respectively have a total of 13 beehives. The young people get work experience and income. But the two novice beekeepers aren't quite used to the impudent bees yet.
|PICTURE: ASFAWO GIZAWO is physically disabled and had no income or agricultural training before he was given the chance to join the CAV training program. Asfawo borrows land in exchange for half of the harvest, and now grows pepper, tomatoes and maize on several patches of land.|
- I was unlucky with the tomatoes this year and didn't earn as much as I hoped, and I would appreciate better irrigation. But I used to earn nothing, so this is a great help. I'll soon be finished with tenth grade and hope I can start high school this fall, but then I need to grow more vegetables, and to manage that I need more land. So I still need help from the project, but I'll manage!
Often small improvements make a big difference. Access to water, new plant species and knowledge about smarter cultivation techniques increases food security, gives a more varied diet and opportunities for extra income.
|PICTURE: BEFKADU TOLOSA (60) cultivates cardamom in the woods bordering his field. The price is good and there is great demand for this tasty spice.|
|PICTURE: A simple but effective irrigation system supplies the fields of 30 families with water. It allows them to grow a large selection of vegetables, spices and fruit, where people previously struggled to cultivate maize and teff.|
|PICTURE: Befkadu has exchanged maize with cabbage, vegetables, coffee and pepper, and now grows plants for sale to other farmers in the district.|
|PICTURE: Befkadu's and the other farmers' fields lie in steep terrain. Multipurpose grass keeps the soil and nutrients safely in place.|
|PICTURE: (perhaps as decoration - a pepper plant)|
Working with EWNRA, the CAV committee had a water reservoir built, which supplies enough pressure to spread the water to the fields below. Here, about 30 families share this simple, but efficient irrigation system. The farmer Befkadu (60) has seized the opportunity and gone all out. He harvests cardamom plants in the woods and cultivates pepper plant seedlings which he sells to other farmers. On his fields, he alternates cabbage, maize, pepper and fruits of various kinds, depending on the time of year and season.
- I have daughters who get an education, and in our familiy we have both food and income from this land, so I'm very happy now, says Befkadu.
Before I only grew maize and teff, but all of us who did that here on the mountain side were plagued by drought and erosion. Now it's easy to see that things are much better.
Befkadu also uses the multipurpose grass that holds the soil in place in the steep terrain and also provides nourishment for cattle and sheep.
When the representatives in Yobi Dola conducted the vulnerability analysis, the need for clean drinking water came out high on the list of priorities.
Zinaye Marily (42) is a member of the board of the water committee (the Wash Committee). He shows us the pool that used to supply the more than 200 people who live here with water. The open water source is infected by excrement from animals and people and exposed to influx of earth and other pollution. Many who got their drinking water here had diarrhea and bad general health.
The Development Fund financed a pump and materials, EWNRA organized the work and provided training for those who would maintain the water pump, while the cooperative's members pitched in voluntarily to build the facility.
Twice a day the padlock on the pump is unlocked and the villagers can take as much water as they need. The water pumps have been transferred to the authorities, and the cooperatives have been certified to do maintenance. To finance this work, all members pay a small sum twice a month.
|PICTURE: In this pool, people in the surrounding villages fetched drinking water, washed clothes and watered their animals.|
|PICTURE: (many alternatives, choose whatever works best)|
|PICTURE: LALISTU KEBEDE (12)|
|PICTURE: ZINAYE MARIL (42) board member of the Wash Committee and ASTER IWUNETU (15)|
|PICTURE: The three CAV villages Yobi Dola, Haro and Goljo lie in the Hurumu District. Here, several rivers have their source and many streams join to form the Baro River. Baro is an important source of the White Nile, and it is of great importance for millions of people that the water inflow is kept stable and clean.|
PICTURE: An important part of the CAV initiative in southwestern Ethiopia is to provide the most vulnerable families with opportunities to earn extra money and have a more varied diet.
This is why XX families have received cows as a gift. In addition, many farmers have bought cattle with the assistance provided by the microcredit project.
|PICTURE: The Borena heifer breed is more resistant to disease, tolerates greater exertion and gives more milk than the traditional breed of cows in Ethiopia.|
|PICTURE: Meseret's mother-in-law MULU DABA (55) is very satisfied with her daughter-in-law's investments.|
|PICTURE: MESERET ADMASUZ (26) works a farm with her husband and mother-in-law. She has made her microcredit loan bear fruit, or, more precisely, calves.|
- I'm a member of the cooperative and joined their savings cooperative. So I received microcredit and bought my first cow. I got her inseminated, and now I have three cows, an ox and a little calf. When I sell the new cow I can pay back my entire loan.
Meseret and her husband grow coffee as well as vegetables for their own use. In the cooperative she has learned a lot about climate smart agriculture.
- In between the coffee shrubs we've planted 300 trees that give shade to the coffee and keep the soil in place. We used to chop down trees on our land whenever we needed money, but one doesn't need to be an expert to understand that it's smart to let the trees stand. So now I've ordered 1000 new Grevillea robusta sprouts, which we will plant.
|PICTURE: WEDAIE DEBELA has received microcredit and can pay back her loan when she sells the new calf.|
|PICTURE: Couple with cattle (he with a Palestinian keffiyeh around his head): BERIGU BEKIRO (42).|
|PICTURE: Woman with white sweater and cow: GETE REGASA (38) and her son TARIKU BELACHO (12) received a cow from the cooperative and are happy that the children get extra vitamins and proteins from the fresh milk.|
|PICTURE: NEGASH GUTEMA (80) is a member of the council of elders.|
|PICTURE: FANTAZE LEGASSE (25) in the savings cooperative offers the other women coffee.|
|PICTURE: Hurumi District, where the village Yobi Dola lies, is lush and green. The rainy and dry seasons have become unpredictable, while deforestation and erosion threatens both cultivated land and water sources.|